- Colour Matching
- Pulled Loops
- Fading on Wool
- Pile Reversal
Carpets are produced in batches - known as creels - and usually each batch produces between 500m² - 3000m² in a single width, depending on the creel size. whilst the recipe used by the dyer remains constant, and is followed to the letter, in each separate production the colour reproduction will vary from batch to batch. However production is matched back to the original or master sample to ensure that the colour remains 'within a commercial tolerance'.
This process if not an exact science and a commercial tolerance is subjective but nevertheless is usually the professional judgment of the head dyer based on his/her experience.
A greater level of tolerance is required on blended colours (Heathers etc). To ensure perfect colour matching it is advisable that a singe width be used in any installation requiring exact colour matching .
N.B Carpets which are layed with pile travelling in different directions, even though they are from the same batch they will appear not to match.
For further information please check with the manufacturers recommendations.
the samples held by individual retailers may not be from the same batch as current production and therefore should be used as a guide and not an exact colour match.
All cut pile carpets will lose short fibre, which is created during production when spun yarn is cut for the tuft formation. These fibres fall onto the surface of the pile and appear as 'fluff'.
the effect varies with yarn type and may be removed without detrimental effect upon the carpet by vacuum cleaning. This excess fibre is only a small fraction of the total fibre contained in the carpet.
Pulled loops occur only in looped pile carpet where one or more loops in the continuous pile is pulled through the primary backing of the carpet. This is usually due to some local condition, possibly, some sharp object which has caught in a loop in situ and has resulted in a pull. Pulled loops are easily dealt with by trimming the offending end level with the rest of the pile. They should not be left as this could result in further loops being pulled and developing in to a ladder.
Occasionally an odd tuft or two can work its way to the surface and stand proud of the rest of the pile. this is probably due to one end of the tuft being longer than the other i.e. J shaped tuft instead of V shaped. Remedial action merely requires that one of the tufts be scissor trimmed level with the rest of the pile. They should never be pulled out.
Shading occurs because the pile of carpet has become crushed, flattened or brushed in a different direction to the natural lie of the pile whilst in situ. This causes light reflection at different angles resulting in the creation of light and dark patches on the carpet. This will occur on all pile fabrics but cane be more noticeable on plainer carpets because the shadow created by the pile pressure will not be disguised by a heavy pattern or design.
Carpets do not produce static but like other household fabrics and objects have the capacity to store it. static is caused by the build up of static electricity upon personal in a dry environment and is discharged when a person makes contact with an object which can conduct electricity (i.e. door handle or filing cabinets, etc).
The static charges will vary in intensity depending on the individual, air humidity and the contact materials. Static is more usually associated with synthetic materials as they do not retain moisture very well but it can and does occur with wool in very dry room conditions.
Preventative measures include the introduction of moisture into the room or in situ carpet treatment.
Carpets made form wool can and do fade in use. The degree of fade can vary depending on the colour chosen and the local condition to which the carpet in subjected.
Fading can be caused by exposure to ultra violet light which is found in daylight, but is accelerated when sunlight shines directly onto the carpet. This has the effect of lightening or "Bleaching" the colour, just as exposure to sunlight will lighten the human hair. Wool after all is an animal hair.
Protection should be given to carpets exposed to such conditions just as you would protect other furniture or fabrics.
A complaint on fading would be considered justified if it failed to meet the required shade standard when tested to the British Standard BSI1006(1990).
Like shading, this occurs when the pile or nap of the carpet changes direction and thus reflects light as different angles showing the effects of shading which can become permanent. it is also described as 'watermarking'. This can happen to every carpet construction be it Axminister, Wilton, Tufted, Hand Woven, Persian, Chinese, Indian or even Coir Matting. Like shading it can be more apparent on a plain carpet because heavy patterns can disguise the effects. It can occur quite quickly after installation. A tremendous amount of research has been carried out over many years by many institutes to determine the cause of the phenomenon but none of it has proved conclusive. There is no commonly known manufacturing process which can cause of cure this phenomenon and therefore it is not a manufacturing fault. For further information please check with individual manufacturers recommendations.
When a carpet is subjected to a heavy point load, such as under the legs of furniture, it is unreasonable to expect the carpet not to indent. Usually, the longer the load is in place, the longer it will take for the pile to recover. in case of very heavy loads the recovery time can be very considerable.
It must be remembered that it is not only the pile of the carpet that has become indented. The underlay will also indent and the backing of the carpet may also distort into the indentation in the underlay. Some underlays will recover better than others depending on there composition, thickness density etc.
The use of cups below the furniture legs can spread the load and the net result is a larger area of less deeply indented carpet.
Often normal Maintenance (vacuum cleaning with a rotating brush machine) will speed up recovery but in the case of serious indentions the use of an iron and damp cloth or a steam iron together with a blunt darning needle to carefully tease up the pile can be beneficial. Of course care must be taken not to over wet the carpet.
Flattening will occur as a result of traffic which eventually flattens the pile particularly in the main areas of use. All pile fabrics will flatten to a degree depending on the amount of traffic to which it subjected and the construction of the product(tuft density/pile fibre/height/weight) concerned.
Soiling is usually the result of some local condition to which the carpet has been subject to, or maintenance, or lack of maintenance programme. There is nothing manufactures can do to prevent soiling in use. there are several types of soiling which are quite common:
Spillages - Liquids such as soft drinks, cordials or any drink which contains sugar, particularly hot drinks are likely to leave a stain. In such instances, professional help should be sought.
Shampoo - If incorrectly applied, it can leave a sticky soap residue in the fibres which can result in the soiling reappearing quite rapidly.
Dust -Which is carried on draughts can soil carpets in various ways, apart from the obvious soiled edges, at gaping and skirting boards for instance, dark lines might appear on the surface might suggest air born dust vacuum-drawn through poorly fitted floorboards. Sometimes the shape of floorboards can be seen quirt clearly. Air born dust sometimes shows itself as spots on the carpet, this is due to the air carried on a drought under the carpet escaping through miniature holes both in the underlay and the carpet, leaving dust deposited on the pile much like a filter action. in such installations, the use of a lining paper is essential as a preventative measure.
It is the responsibility of the retailer to advise the customer when the carpet is measured of any poorly fitting doors, skirting or floorboards. The customers has a responsibility to ensure any remedial work to seal draughts is carried out before the carpet is fitted, if a resulting complaint is to be avoided.